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some interesting Facts about turkmenistan


Even though Turkmenistan has an abundance of natural gas, most of the people continue to live in poverty.  The country has been under a veil of isolation from which it has only recently begun to emerge.



Statistics for turkmenistan


5,171,943 (July 2014 est.)


 Life expectancy at birth:


 total population: 69.47 years 
male: 66.48 years 
female: 72.61 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:


2.1 children born/woman (2014 est.)


Muslim 89%

Eastern Orthodox 9%

unknown 2%


Ethnic Groups

Turkmen 85%

Uzbek 5%

Russian 4%

other 6% (2003)



GDP - per capita (PPP):


 $9,700 (2013 est.) 


definition: age 15 and over can read and write 
total population: 99.6% 
male: 99.7% 
female: 99.5% (2011 est.)






  • The official name of the country is Turkmenistan It is also known as also known as Turkmenia.
  • History.   The land that is now Turkmenistan has been the "crossroads of civilizations" for centuries. It was ruled and/or settle by Persia, Alexander the Great, Muslim crusaders, Mongols, Turks, and the Russians. It was annexed by Russia in the late 1800s.  It achieved independence when the USSR broke up in 1991. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. 

  • Geography.  Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia.  It is bordered by the Caspian Sea, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan.  The Garagum (Kara-Kum) Desert, occupies over 80% of the country.  It is a little larger than California.  The Kopet Dag Range runs along the southwestern border.  The Great Balkhan Range is in the west and the Köýtendag Range is the southeastern border with Uzbekistan.  
  • Kara-Kum Desert.  This desert is one of the largest sand deserts in the world.  It contains great amounts of  oil and natural gas.  It also has the third largest deposits of sulphur in the world.    
  • Natural Gas / Hydrocarbons.  Turkmenistan possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources.  This huge amount of hydrocarbon deposits have yet to be fully developed, but already it has begun to change the country.   Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.[
  • Language.  As of the1992 Constitution, Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, although Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a "language of inter-ethnic communication". It is a Turkic language.  Since 1991 it has been written in a verson of the Latin alphabet based on the Turkish language.  
  • Merv.  Several cities have been erected on this site over the centuries, in fact traces of villages from the 3rd millennium BCE have been found. In medieval times Merv was an important stop on the Silk Road, the site of a major oasis, a center of religious study. It is said that in the 12th century CE it was the largest city in the world and it was called "Marv-i-shahjahan", meaning Merv – Queen of the World.  It is now called Mary and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 
  • President Saparmurat.  The government controls almosgtg everything. "Soviet-style" visa requirements, expensive tourist services, distrust of foreigners, the abundance of police and soldiers that are constantly watching are often discouraging to the visitor. The former, and all-powerful President for Life Serdar Saparmurat Niyazov Turkmenbsashi the Great died in 2006, but his actions and policies still have a major effect on the country. During his tenure he re-named several things after himself and his family:  cities, the months of January and April, and the word for bread. .He banned prohibitions against photography, lip synching, long hair, video games, and golden tooth caps. He shut down libraries and hospitals.

  • Etymology.  To uncover the meaning of the name Turkmenistan, it is broken down into three parts.  The first sylable, "Turk", comes from "Türk"from the French "Turc", from Medieval Latin "Turcus", from Byzantine Greek "Tourkos", which was a national name, of unknown origin, meaning a Persian Turk. The middle syllable, men, is from the Sogdian suffix "-myn" which means similarity.   Turkmen then means resembling a Turk.  The final syllable, the suffix "-stan", is a place-name element from the Persian meaning "country," from Indo-Iranian *stanam" meaning place.  This literally means where one stands.  ," from PIE *sta-no-, suffixed form of root *sta- "to stand" Some scholars state that the element "-man" acts as an intensifer, and so translate the word "turkmen" as most Turk-like of the Turks. Other possibilities for the word "turk" is that it may have meant strength in Turkish. In Persian, it could also have meant a beautiful youth" a barbarian, or a robber.    
  • Capital.  The name of Turkmenistan's capital is Ashgabat.  It means the City of Arsaces in Persian, which translates either as the city of love or the city that turkey-men built.  Tradition says that it comes from the Arabic word element "ishq" (love) combined with the Persian suffix "abad" (built).  The city is a showcase of white marble palaces, golden statues.  With the great amount of money coming in from oil and natural gas, the old buildings are being torn down and the city is rapidly changing.










No published law currently exists that expressly governs adoption by foreigners in Turkmenistan.  


Turkmenistan is not party to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption ( Hague Adoption Convention ). Therefore, when the Hague Adoption Convention entered into force for the United States on April 1, 2008, intercountry adoption processing for Turkmenistan did not change.


The Department of State does not maintain files on the adoption process in Turkmenistan because adoptions from Turkmenistan are rare. Fewer than five adoptions by American citizen parents have taken place since 1999. 






Hague Accredited: No




We strongly urge you to comply with the requirements established by the government of the country you are adopting from and complete all post-adoption requirements in a timely manner.  Your adoption agency may be able to help you with this process and/or provide you with more specific guidelines.  


If your agency is unable to help you with this, or no longer has an active program, it is suggested that you enlist the assistance of another agency that is able to help you complete the post-placement reports.  If all else fails, filing the report directly with the embassy or Minister of Education of the country adopted from may be acceptable.


In Fall 2006, the following advice was obtained by Karen's Adopiton Links for all families who needed to file their own Post Placement Reports:

  1. Use a Licensed Social Worker to do the Post Placement Report 
  2. Translate report with a Certified Translator. 
  3. Get the Post Placement Report apostilled.
  4. Include 5 pictures
  5. Suggested Sample form 
  6. Send directly by DHL or FedEx to the Minister of Education in the country or region of adoption. 

click here for more Information on Post-Placement Reports in general 









Helpful Links


Resources below are presented for information purposes only. Unless noted specifically as a FRUA INC group, FRUA INC does not endorse, nor have any connection with the following.



Adoption - Turkmenistan (US Embassy in Turkmenistan)

Armenian Adoptions (U.S. Department of State)


Turkmenistan (Wikipedia)

Turkmenistan  (CIA Factbook)

Turkmenistan (Info Please)  

FRUA INC Facebook Page




Karen's Adoption Links


InterCountry Adoption Service Provider Search


International Adoptive Medical Clinics & Physicians


Child Welfare Gateway


North American Council on Adoptable Children


Hague Accreditation and Approval


Post Adoption (US Department of State)


Intercountry Adoption (US Department of State)


PEAR (Parents for Ethical Adoption Reform)




 There may also be other online parent support groups, lists and forums related to adoption from this country on Yahoo GroupsFacebook, the EEACAdoptive FamilesAdoption Services Support Groups, and Adoption.com







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